Venus is the second planet of the eight planets of the solar system, about 0.72 astronomical units from the Sun, orbit between Mercury and Earth. The day of Venus is equivalent to 230 days of the Earth, and the magnetic field strength is only about one in 100,000 of the Earth. In addition, the direction of rotation of Venus is opposite to that of the Earth and other planets, which is very strange.
The appearance of Venus
As can be seen from the photos of Venus, the surface of Venus is covered by a thick yellow atmosphere, the surface is not visible, and there is no blue ocean like the earth. There is only one layer of V-shaped band cloud. Since Venus’s atmosphere was too strong, the surface of the Venus could not be known by the telescope. Therefore, the former Soviet Union launched the probe ships Venera 9 and Benela 10, and in 1975, the surface of Venus was detected. The activity also unveiled the secrets of the Venus surface.
The Venera 9 and Venera 10 probes were launched on June 8 and 14, 1975, respectively. An unprecedented plan was to launch a landing sub-ship to capture the surface of Venus from the surface of Venus. . After four months of voyage, the two spaceships successfully launched the landing sub-ship and landed on Venus on October 16 and 23.
The size of the stone in this photo is about 30 cm to about one meter. Later, the Soviet Union launched a series of probe ships, and learned that the surface of Venus is composed of basalt.
As for the distribution of the surface continent of Venus? The map on the left is the American probe ship Magellan, which observed Venus in 1990, using radio waves to analyze the surface of Venus with a resolution of 100 to 200 meters. The overall topography of Venus can be seen and it is found that the surface of Venus is relatively flat compared to Earth. About 60% of the surface of Venus is a gentle plain. On the mainland of Ishdar, there is the highest peak of Venus, Mark Tuwei Mountain. The height of the mountain top is 11 kilometers. The lowest area of Venus is the Diana Valley, located at 14 degrees south latitude and 156 degrees east longitude, 2 km below the average. Through the estimation of the number of surface pits, it is known that the surface of Venus is younger than the earth, only about 500 million years old.
Venus’s surface environment
Due to the greenhouse effect caused by the thick carbon dioxide, the interior of Venus is extremely hot, and the surface temperature is 470 degrees, just like purgatory. The atmospheric pressure on the surface is also 90 atmospheres, 90 times that of the Earth. It is a high temperature and high pressure environment. Under such conditions, the boiling point of water is about 300 degrees Celsius, so there is no liquid water on the surface of Venus. Also extremely unsuitable for living on earth.
The gravity of the Venus surface is close to the Earth, about 0.91 times that of the Earth.
Mars surface taken by Venera 13 spacecraft
The atmospheric structure of Venus
The atmosphere of Venus is mainly carbon dioxide, accounting for about 96%, and nitrogen is 3%. At a height of 50 to 70 kilometers, a thick thick cloud is suspended, dividing the atmosphere into two layers. The cloud is composed of concentrated sulfuric acid droplets, which are also doped with sulfur particles, so they appear yellow. On a good climate, it should be hard to imagine such a crazy world in the solar system.
Venus’s near-surface atmospheric velocity is relatively slow, only a few kilometers per hour, but the upper layer can reach hundreds of kilometers per second. The speed of Venus rotation is so slow, and 243 Earth Days turn around, but it is so fast. The rotating upper atmosphere is still a mystery.
In the photo we can observe that the clouds on the surface of Venus have an inverted V shape, which is called the banded wind system. This banded wind is actually the convection caused by the sun.
Venus’ star structure
Scientists speculate that the internal structure of Venus may be similar to that of the Earth. According to the structure of the Earth, the main components of Venus are citrate, which is mainly composed of olivine and pyroxene, and a crust-based crust, and the center is made of iron-nickel. The core of the alloy. Venus has an average density of 5.24g/cc, which is second to Earth and Mercury and is the densest of the nine planets.
Venus is the brightest bright star in addition to the sun and the moon. Before the sun has risen, the maximum angle of Venus from the ground is about 30 degrees, depending on the diameter, sometimes more than 60 seconds. It is the best observation time for Venus when the observation is not clear or when the sun has just fallen.
Although its apparent diameter is large, because Venus’s atmosphere is very thick, it is not easy to observe the surface condition. Both Venus and Mercury are inner planets, so the situation of profit and loss can be seen in small telescopes. The luminosity of Venus can reach -4.6 and so on, so the bright stars that are usually seen when the sun is not dark, or when you see it at sunrise, may be Venus.
HD big picture (source NASA)